Who is he?
“Stephen Krashen is professor emeritus at the University of Southern California, who moved from the linguistics department to the faculty of the School of Education in 1994. He is a linguist, educational researcher, and activist.”
What does he believe?
Krashen has worked for years to understand and promote second (or subsequent) language learning. His series of hypothesis for language acquisition have been influential in ESL education around the world. Stephen Krashen believes, and has referential and reputable studies completed both by himself and others, which indicate that language output (traditional ESL programming component) does not promote integral language competency. Students of English must be emotionally ready, have interesting material (Comprehensible Input) and that language which is subconsciously acquired is the source of spontaneous language production.
Stephen Krashen does not believe instruction in isolation is beneficial nor does it promote integrated language development or interest in the language. Additionally, studies have show, according to Krashen, that the reading level of a 16 year old is a more accurate predictor of adult literacy level than reading level of an 8 year old (as currently used to predict adult literacy levels in the USA)
Krashen has become vocal and active in the #optout movement in the USA in response to the increasing number of assessments being delivered via the ‘No Child Left Behind’ program. He asserts that although some assessment is important to determine programming, that assessments completed by the teachers working with the students; on-going, formative assessment, is more indicative of student achievement levels than invasive, stressful over-reaching assessments which interrupt, direct and limit instruction to the detriment of students.
His support and call to promote, expand and integrate libraries through ALL communities, especially poorer communities, has been persistent, consistent and founded on extensive research demonstrating the benefits of available literature to offset the negative effects of poverty on education.
Additionally, Krashen makes his papers, books and academic publications available on his website at no cost.
I am an avid Stephen Krashen fan. I follow him on Facebook, blogspot ((skrashen) and his website (sdkrashen.com). Also, his videos available on youtube.com are a source of information, learning and impetus for change in instruction.
Who is he?
Ken Goodman is the Founder of Whole Language Philosophy, Miscue Analysis and Socio-linguistic Comprehension studies. He is Past President International Reading Association, President of the National Conference on Language And Literacy, and President of the Center for Expansion of Language and Thinking. Ken Goodman is also a Professor Emeritus, University of Arizona. Ken Goodman is the researcher and developer of the Whole Language Model. He is the publisher of a multitude of academic papers, books and articles but is probably best known for “What’s Whole in Whole Language” published in 6 languages.
What does he believe?
Ken Goodman is an avid supporter of whole language programming and a keen supporter of international education initiatives. Most notably, Goodman is the developer of the Whole Language Program Theory. His initiatives for the program stem from his research of Noam Chomsky’s theories of language development. He has been a tireless and avid international promoter of Whole Language Programming, believing an integrated and immersive language culture is in itself an educational program. His research began and is based on his work in racially mixed blue collar neighborhoods with high numbers of low achievers. His work and development of miscue analysis has been a standard in education since Goodman’s initial publications pre 1965. He asserted then, based on research, and continues to confirm that words are easier to read in context rather than in lists. His work also focused on socio-linguistic differences and the impact on comprehension – which he found did NOT affect comprehension.
I love this quote from Goodman’s memoir
“The subjects in my urban research spoke a rich variety of dialects. By definition, a miscue is an unexpected response. But shouldn’t we expect readers to use their own dialects in their oral reading? He’p is not an unexpected reading of help for a child whose language community pronounces it that way. My model of reading now became sociolinguistic as well as psycholinguistic. My miscue research showed how speakers of different dialects responded to the same text. Initially I assumed that dialect would be a barrier to comprehension (Goodman, 1965b). Through my research with rural and urban Black, Downeast Maine, Appalachian, and Hawaiian Pidgin speakers, I found that dialect was only a barrier if schools made it one by confusing readers over how they pronounced words” (Goodman & Buck, 1973).
I was surprised to discover that his book ‘What’s Whole in Whole Language’ was actually the resultant publication from his work/presentations in Canadian provinces where the USA trend to tests and texts was being rejected. Additionally, the original publisher was Scholastic Canada! His publications Phonics Phacts and Ken Goodman on Reading demonstrate his dedication to continued education, research and foundational evidence for programming.
I love whole language! I love the work Ken Goodman has done and his continued work internationally in his retirement. I follow him on Blogspot (kengoodmansmorningpost)
© Michelle Redman and mredmanwrites, 2015. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this blog’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Michelle Redman and mredmanwrites https://wordpress.com/post/87298231/new